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vacuum-tube machine which occupied

a whole room in the company’s payroll

department. Engineers back then said

they didn’t need computers because

they had slide rules. Carrig wrote a

program using punch cards in the For-

tran language, which is the ancestor of

most modern engineering languages.

In a 2007 interview, Chuck said,

Klaus asked if I could develop a pro-

gram for the four-link independent

rear suspension – not only a printout

but also graphs of wheel motion. No-

body could even figure out how to lay

it out on a drafting table because it

was too complicated. It required a

three-dimensional approach not con-

ducive to two-dimensional drafting

layouts. They gave me a time commit-

ment that was almost impossible – in

weeks, not months. It was a challenge

to me, personally


The computer was very slow by

today’s standards, something like

40,000 operations per second (now

computers at Ford are in the trillions

per second). Klaus Arning and his de-

velopment group’s Program 1493 in-

fluenced the new Mustang IRS as it

has every suspension program written

since that first breakthrough on a Fri-

day night on several bar receipts at

the Brass Rail in Detroit. It took sev-

eral intense weeks to actually develop

the program, though. I’d drop the

cards off in the evening and pick up

the results on the way to my office in

the morning.

That first program became known

as PG 1493, which is the grandfather

of all suspension programs since. It

could plot the X-Y-Z coordinates of the

ball joints, wheel center, ground con-

tact point, toe angle, caster angle, and

other suspension properties through

the entire range of motion. This “killer

app” became the basis of all suspen-

sion programs to this day, and was key

to Ford’s world-beating racing effort to

follow. Bob Riley, of Riley Technologies,

who started his career at Ford, still

swears by 1493. The 82-year-old said,

I still show up for work every day. I

like the old program because it plots a

curve, not just spits out a bunch of


Riley Tech is now run by his son,

Bill, and Chip Ganassi had won the

Rolex 24 at Daytona in a Riley car

running a modified Ford EcoBoost

motor. Soon that same team will be

fielding a Ford GT at LeMans for the

anniversary of the first GT40 win, 50

years ago. Edsel (son) and Bill

(nephew) of Henry Ford II will both be

there. The apple doesn’t fall far from

the tree, as they say.

But back to the 60s. If you were

Henry Ford II who had an almost un-

limited corporate check book, the

fastest way to position your company

as a performance leader would be to

buy the epitome of sporty cars, Ferrari.

There had been rumors that Ferrari

might be open to suitors, so a pack of

lawyers and accountants was sent to

Modena, Italy, to try to determine a

sale price for the exotic automaker.

The agreed figure was $18 million, a

huge dowry in 1963, but that May,

Enzo Ferrari suddenly announced that

Ford was not “worthy” of owning Fer-

rari and the June wedding was off.

Henry Ford II was insulted, not

only on a professional level but also on

a personal level. Several of the Italian

media had made fun of Ford’s “fat”

cars. Ford decided to hit Ferrari where

it would hurt the most: beating him at

LeMans. When he called his de facto

racing team, led by Ford Director of

Special Vehicle Activities Jaques

Passino, into his office to announce the

new plan, someone asked Ford, “


is the budget?

” Ford is reported to

have said, “

Just do it!

Fortunately, or serendipitously,

Eric Broadly had just introduced his

Lola GT at the London show in Janu-

ary of 1963. It certainly wasn’t capable

of beating Ferrari as it sat there, but

it was a good basic design and, more

importantly, had a mid-mounted Ford

small-block V8 as motive power –

something revolutionary in English

car design at the time. Broadly, always

short of money, was happy to hear

from Ford, whose newly formed race

team would soon descend on his car in

the hope of turning it into their Le-

Mans racer.

Occasionally you could find one of

the first GT’s in the driveway of Arn-

ing’s home, complete with its skinny

tires, wire wheels, Euro plates, and

questionable aerodynamics. By April

of 1964 the car had been christened

the Ford GT 40 (because it was only

forty-inches high) was ready to be in-

troduced at the New York Auto Show.

The body had been massaged by Ford

designers using Ford’s wind tunnel,

and the suspension had been re-


Summer 2016 65

The new Ford GT is shown, just prior to appearing at the London Auto Show in January,

1963. Pictured [

left to right

]: John Wyer, Eric Broadley and Roy Lunn.